IRTF Data Archive Program Information

# # Program information file # PROGRAM_ID 2023B011 PROGRAM_TITLE Short, high-frequency observations of Io's volcanism to support the Juno mission and understand the physics of volcanoes PROGRAM_INV1 Madeline Pettine PROGRAM_INV2 Julie Rathbun PROGRAM_INV3 PROGRAM_INV4 PROGRAM_INV5 PROGRAM_SCICAT major planets / satellites PROGRAM_ABSTRACT_BEG Io offers invaluable information regarding the Jovian system and general volcanic processes. We propose frequent, short imaging of Io's near-IR emission with SpeX to further two goals: to support the science goals of the Juno mission orbiting Jupiter and to study the physics of volcanic eruptions. We will support two of Juno's objectives: understanding Io's tidal heating and how its volcanoes influence the Jovian magnetosphere. We obtain images of Io in eclipse, in reflected sunlight, and while an eclipsed Io is being occulted by Jupiter. These three types of observations are complementary and enable high spatial resolution imaging [over the sub-Jovian hemisphere] and coverage of Io's full disk. One of the Juno extended mission's science goals is to constrain tidal heating models using the spatial distribution of volcanic heat flux as measured by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapping [JIRAM] instrument. However, JIRAM's measurements of Io's volcanic flux are limited to relatively few observations [a few dozen] over a relatively short period of time [~a decade]. We propose ground-based imaging of Io using the IRTF in order to provide temporal context necessary for a holistic and long-term understanding of Io's heat flow. Another goal of the Juno mission is to study interactions between the Io plasma torus and Jupiter's magnetosphere. Since Io's largest eruptions are the likely source of the material [9-11], frequent observations of Io's volcanoes, such as we propose here, are also necessary to constrain the timing of material input into the system. In addition to supporting the Juno mission, these observations will measure the time-varying brightness of the largest volcanoes of Io, whose periodic brightening and dimming is dependent on their geophysical behavior. Studying the periods and magnitudes of volcanoes like Loki with frequent observations will constrain the underlying physical processes. PROGRAM_ABSTRACT_END